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Cho Rice Play High.7z


Manhattan plots showing selective sweep regions detected in African rice (O. glaberrima). The horizontal solid line indicates the threshold value for declaring candidate selective sweeps (see material and method section for details)




Cho Rice Play High.7z



The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in promoting tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought, low temperature, and high salinity [1]. During the vegetative growth phase, ABA mediates adaptive responses to adverse abiotic conditions by stimulating stomatal closure in guard cells, changing the expression of numerous stress-responsive genes, and promoting the accumulation of compatible solutes [2]. These responses enhance plant growth and survival under stress conditions [3, 4].


With regard to metabolic variations, environmental factors, e.g., growing season, location, sowing date, and type of abiotic stress, play a larger role than genetic modifications [26,27,28]. Because those factors may be the dominant parameter driving the variability of metabolite profiles in the PCA, we also conducted a comparative analysis to examine individual differences in the datasets of transgenic soybean versus its non-transgenic counterpart. Relative quantification demonstrated that some metabolites were accumulated due to overexpression of ABF3 during the stress period. In particular, levels of amino acids were somewhat higher in our tolerant transgenic soybean than in the non-transgenics in response to moderate drought. Proline participates in defenses against osmotic challenges by acting as a major compatible solute [29]. Yoshiba et al. [30] have suggested that ABA is involved in activating the gene that encodes Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis.


A recent multi-omics study with soybean leaves has revealed that exogenously applied ABA increases the accumulation of glycerolipids, prenol lipids, and phospholipids while the concentrations of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and isoflavonoids, remain unchanged [37]. Drought stress is known to have a distinct effect on the metabolism of lipids that play a role in maintaining membrane integrity and preserving cell compartmentation [38, 39]. Overexpression of the gene for phosphatidylinositol synthase, ZmPIS, in maize plants effectively improves their drought tolerance by altering the lipid composition in membranes and increasing ABA synthesis [40]. Here, overexpression of ABF3 in soybean plants changed the levels of some glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, prenol lipids, fatty acyls, and their derivatives during the stress period. These alterations might have been correlated with the regulation of cell membrane damage and the osmotic balance in response to drought. Nevertheless, quantitative differences in the relative levels of those metabolites were less than 50% between genotypes.


Kaya started his career as a structural engineer. As a construction executive for Bechtel in the 1970s and 80s, Kaya played a leading role in the development of the Saudi Arabian Industrial City of Jubail and the James Bay hydroelectric complex in Canada. In 2000, Kaya launched Space Camp Turkey. Kaya's vision to shape future leaders through space science education has resulted in over 100,000 participants from 55 countries. To foster cross-cultural understanding, Kaya and his wife Mary established Global Friendship Through Space Education, a California nonprofit.In recognition of his philanthropic work, in 2004 Kaya became the first Turkish-American to receive the prestigious Ellis Island Medal of Honor.


Born in Osaka, Japan, Yoshiko Kakudo received her B.A. in Sociology from Kobe College in 1957, and her M.A. in Decorative Art from UC Berkeley in 1964. While she was in Berkeley she resided in International House and was one of the notable Alumni. She joined the Avery Brundage Collection as a Research Assistant in 1964. At that time the Brundage Wing was not built yet and she worked in the basement of the old de Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park. She became the Curator of Japanese Art in 1970 and held that position until her retirement in 1994. She also cared for the Korean Art Collection until 1989 when the museum hired the Curator of Korean Art. Besides her permanent Japanese galleries in the Asian Art Museum, Yoshiko was also responsible for the Japan Center Extension Gallery when the new Japan Center was established in Japan Town in 1972. For many years, Yoshiko selected objects from the Asian Art Museum and displayed them with impeccable taste in the small gallery over the Webster Street Bridge. Throughout her thirty years in the museum, Yoshiko Kakudo curated and co-curated more than thirty exhibitions, took part in numerous symposia, gave many lectures, and wrote many articles on the museum's Japanese collection and on the subject of Japanese Art.


Bora Özkök was born in Adana, Turkey. His interest in folk dance was rooted in his childhood, when his parents took him to watch folklore shows. At the age of fifteen, Bora was a member of the Turkish Olympic swim team in the Rome Olympics of 1960. Upon graduation, Bora continued at a private architectural school for a year. Then, in 1965, he came to the United States on an athletic scholarship granted by the University of California at Berkeley, where his major was in architecture. In 1969, Bora was selected as one of the twelve outstanding foreign students in America, chosen from 1,000 Middle-Eastern nominees from 500 universities and colleges in the United States, and the outstanding representative of Turkey. He graduated from Berkeley in 1971 with a Bachelors Degree in Architecture. Bora began folk dancing at Berkeley in 1967, and learned his first Turkish dances during a visit to Turkey in 1970 from members of the Turkish National Folk Dance Ensemble. After his return that same year, he taught at the San Francisco Kolo Festival and the rest, as they say, is history. Bora was not only an outstanding dancer and inspiring teacher, he was a talented musician, playing music for the dances he taught. In 1976, Bora arranged and accompanied the performing tour of FOTEM (Folk Training and Education Center of Istanbul) across the United States.


Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni is an award-winning and bestselling author, poet, activist and teacher of writing. Her work has been published in over 50 magazines, including the Atlantic Monthly and The New Yorker, and her writing has been included in over 50 anthologies, including The Best American Short Stories, the O.Henry Prize Stories and the Pushcart Prize Anthology. Her books have been translated into 29 languages, including Dutch, Hebrew, Bengali, Russian and Japanese, and many of them have been used for campus-wide and city-wide reads. Several of her works have been made into films and plays. She lives in Houston with her husband Murthy and has two sons, Anand and Abhay.


Adsorption isotherms play A key role in giving detailed information about the existing interaction between molecules of OGCIs and the metal surface (Herrag et al., 2010) to prevent the dissolution reaction of such metal in the corrosive medium. Influencing factors on the adsorption process using OGCIs include the (1) structure of OGCI compounds, (2) types of corrosive media under examination, (3) nature of surface-charged metals, (4) electronic characteristics of the metal surface, and (5) charge distribution in the molecules of OGCIs (Vracar and Drazic, 2002); Khaled, 2010). The values obtained from the simulation of existing isotherm models relating surface coverage (θ) and OGCI concentration together describe the most suitable adsorption isotherm for the process. The prominent OGCI adsorption isotherms have been stated to be Langmuir, Temkin, Frumkin, Freudlich, Virial Parson, and Bockris-Swinkels isotherms (Gopal et al., 2011), which are summarized in Table 7 with their verification plots and significance of obtained values. The most suitable adsorption isotherm that best describes the adsorption nature of OGCI on the examined metal surface will give a correlation coefficient (R2) value that is very close to unity or equal to 1.


It has been established that many silicates also possess corrosion inhibitory attributes due to their capability to block corrosion active sites on metals in acidic medium. Researchers should focus on synthesizing composite OGCIs from greener extracts and silicates (such as rice husk waste) to improve their efficiency. This phenomenon is referred to as a synergism effect, which can be quantified by applying Eq. (7). This will also enable researchers to widen their scope and knowledge of using naturally endowed greeners.


It has been established that organic compound structures of OGCIs play a vital role on how they effectively inhibit the corrosion of metal. This means that changing the organic compound chemical structure will directly sectionize corrosion inhibition. This calls for advanced research works in the development of quantitative models bridging chemical structure to properties using existing machine learning or statistical approaches. Although quantitative structure-activity relationships and quantitative structure-property relationships modeling have been presented (Winkler and Burden, 2000); Le et al., 2012; Fujita and Winkler, 2016), there is a need for more machine learning modeling methods and computational models that are applicable in studying the corrosion inhibitory properties of OGCI organic compounds. Also, improvements in robotics and machine learning will pave ways to tremendous increase in the efficiencies and dependency of methods for designing OGCIs within a short period.


The corrosion inhibitory effects of OGCIs on mild steel have been the major consideration in numerous previous studies because of its relatively low price with acceptable material properties for many domestic and industrial applications (Singh et al., 2016). However, its low corrosion resistance in acidic environments is a major challenge (Alaneme et al., 2016). There is a need to work assiduously on other metallic components such as copper, alloys, aluminum, and stainless steel. All these work in unison and play specific roles in material selection for domestic/industrial purposes. They also corrode when subjected to certain environmental conditions. They are also the major components of automobiles, whose major concern is corrosion. 041b061a72


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